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how to analyse qualitative data from an interview

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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. Qualitative data is defined as the data that approximates and characterizes. Then read the data again, this time making notes of your impressions. For example, group all of the material related to school counselors in one group. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness. For example, your story might center on students who struggled to make the transition to high school and what sort of challenges they faced. It might be safer to initially choose a more relaxed way of dealing with your material. Spend a lot of time working with your data. It usually follows these steps: Getting familiar with the data (reading and re-reading). Interviews are usually analysed using thematic analysis or other qualitative data analysis methods. Sometimes it is the market researchers themselves who must classify data. • You should be able to discover a variety of themes, codes,,p g p or even possible categories that will provide the beginnings of analysis, and/or ideas for future interviews. Decisions regarding how data are summarized and laid out to facilitate comparison influence the depth and detail of the investigation’s conclusions. Each time, note any new thoughts you have or questions that you need to answer. Example: physical activity apps for cancer survivors . Last Updated: September 5, 2019 Brief exercise 1. In this video (which is the 4th in my mini-series on qualitative interviews) I explain how to analyse qualitative data. That might be another theme that you highlight. For example, you might want to conduct some follow-up interviews. This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. You could also give codes such as “elementary school” and “high school”. Definition: Thematic analysisis a systematic method of breaking down and organizing rich data from qualitative research by tagging individual observations and quotations with appropriate codes, to facilitate the discovery of significant themes. Thanks to all authors for creating a page that has been read 9,761 times. These are called thematic content analysis and narrative analysis, both of which call for an unstructured approach to research. Begin right away with coding/tagging your interviews. Coding can be done manually or using qualitative data analysis software such as NVivo, Atlas ti 6.0, HyperRESEARCH 2.8, Max QDA and others. For example, you might note that red font indicates interviews with teachers. Analysing qualitative data will help you produce findings on the nature of change that individuals or organisations you work with have experienced. In this approach, the researcher tests his or her pre-existing theories. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. PDF | On Jan 1, 2003, H. O'Connor and others published A Step-By-Step Guide To Qualitative Data Analysis | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate It can follow these steps: In some cases, it is possible to use a somewhat non-qualitative approach. This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. It aims to find common patterns across a data set. All tip submissions are carefully reviewed before being published, This article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness. But, hey, that’s also the beauty of the qualitative method and its hidden potential. Discover how you can improve your credit score fast. Often, market researchers ask consumers, customers, or clients to organize their ideas. Transcription might seem tedious, but it's a great way to further immerse yourself in the data. Reading interviews multiple times to get familiar with your data is where most qualitative researchers start. Thesis Writing & Dissertation | Academic Writing Help for Those Feeling Stuck, 3 Straightforward Methods for Analyzing Qualitative Interview Data. Displaying Qualitative Data. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. It's really a personal choice. Analyze each story and look for insights and meanings. After the initial condensation, qualitative analysis depends on how the data are displayed. You'll read through the interviews multiple times. It usually follows these steps: This approach is becoming increasingly popular, especially in social sciences. Thematic Analysis. On the contrary — it just achieves results in a different way to a quantitative study. If you have conducted qualitative interviews, here are three methods that can be used to analyze your data: This is probably the most common method used in qualitative research. One drawback to using software is that you might not familiarize yourself with the data as much if you rely on software. Therefore getting the first three steps right is absolutely critical for the analysis to lead to actionable insights quickly. Also make note if you think any of the sources aren't credible or if you think you need to verify the information elsewhere. As the name suggests, it is about making sense of stories. Grounded theory, for example, might be a bit too complex and ambitious to undertake as your first assignment (if you really want to implement it properly). Here, we will focus on one of the most common methods for analyzing semi-structured interviews: thematic analysis. For example, you might go through the minutes of recent school board meetings. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. Qualitative Data Analysis and Interpretation. Definition: A theme: 1. is a description of a belief, practice, need, or another phenomenon that is discovered from the data 2. emerg… We focus primarily on analysing transcribed interview and focus group data. Tips on the preliminary analysis of interview data • Read through the interview responses and look for patterns or themes among the data. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\n<\/p><\/div>"}, How to Analyze Qualitative Data from Interviews, https://cirt.gcu.edu/research/developmentresources/research_ready/qualitative/analyzing_data, https://www.bumc.bu.edu/crro/files/2010/07/Hesse-Bieber-4-10.pdf, https://www.interaction-design.org/literature/article/how-to-do-a-thematic-analysis-of-user-interviews, http://amandabarusch.com/tools-for-narrative-research/step-by-step-approach-to-narrative-analysis/, https://www.keele.ac.uk/media/keeleuniversity/facnatsci/schpsych/documents/counselling/conference/5thannual/NarrativeApproachestoCaseStudies.pdf, consider supporting our work with a contribution to wikiHow. The good old days when qualitative researchers could be found endlessly rearranging Post-it Notes are probably coming to an end in the near future. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. Step 4: Analyse the interviews. In this blog, you will read about the example, types, and analysis of qualitative data. There are various ways of analysing interview or focus group data. Go through the data set several times, and determine which interviews are useful and which you might set aside. A thematic analysis strives to identify patterns of themes in the interview data. With quantitative research, the researcher will normally decide on the method of analysis, including statistical technique, before even data collection starts. Complementary sources of data: newspaper articles, blogs, official records, archival data, etc. But that does not imply qualitative methodology lacks rigor. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. When using manual coding you can use folders, filing cabinets, wallets etc. wikiHow is where trusted research and expert knowledge come together. Time constraints can make this feel difficult, but otherwise you may end up having to go back through your data because you noticed an important theme you hadn’t coded in the first few sources. 6. What’s more, there are two types of inductive qualitative analysis to choose from. Qualitative data can be observed and recorded. When we embark on a qualitative journey, we need to be prepared to work in a slightly more intuitive and not always tangible way. Don't be afraid to switch approaches. Common examples of qualitative data are interview transcripts, texts (such as books or articles), field notes, images, video, and online data, such as tweets or forum discussions. For example, instead of simply “assessment”, you might describe that theme as “innovations in measuring student success”. We also touch on the analysis of visual data, a potentially fruitful alternative approach. The more familiar you are with your interviews, the more clearly you'll see themes. Scientists and professionals consider numerical methods the gold standard of analysis. Analyzing Qualitative Data G3658-12 2003 Ellen Taylor-Powell Marcus Renner Program Development & Evaluation Introduction Qualitative data consist of words and observa-tions, not numbers. How do you analyze qualitative interviews? It can be really useful to use video clips of the interviews. to gather together materials that are examples of similar themes or analytic ideas. Both methods are effective. Discuss this with people sitting next or around you 3. Qualitative data science sounds like a contradiction in terms. You might notice that parents of high school students are very focused on graduation rates. Analysis of qualitative data should be seen as a circular or spiralling process, rather than a linear progression that occurs soon after data collection and before writing the results. Include your email address to get a message when this question is answered. You could also look at photos of various classrooms around the city. Analyse your results in relation to your research objective/question and attach the raw data collected in an appendix (350 words).l a. Analyse the qualitative data from your pilot research. wikiHow's. Analysis of Quantitative Interview Data. Share with the rest of the group . They can add a lot of personal insights and help people to connect to the material. The idea is for them to be very user-friendly to you. Themes and concepts are decided before the analysis starts and are imposed on the material. Three ways to organize and analyze qualitative data are described here: affinity diagram, card sort, and constant comparison. Quantitative data is analyzed using statistical analysis, while qualitative data is analyzed by grouping it in terms of meaningful categories or themes. Keep arranging your data until you have a set of themes that support your argument. One of the advantages of thematic analysis is that it’s a flexible method which you can use both for explorative studies, where you don’t have a clear idea of what patterns you are searching for, as well as for more … Qualitative analysis is often an iterative approach, but it really helps to sit down with your data after you have collected it and read it all through before actually starting any analysis. This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. % of people told us that this article helped them. Before purchasing software, read online reviews of different products. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. The researcher will start out with a question or issue, collect data, analyse the data they have collected, start to formulate theory, go back and look at, or even collect, more data. This article has been viewed 9,761 times. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. Typically, instead of including a lot of hard data, you'll focus on the more personal aspects of the interview. As a novel researcher, it might be best to stir away from some types of qualitative research methodology and analysis. wikiHow's Content Management Team carefully monitors the work from our editorial staff to ensure that each article is backed by trusted research and meets our high quality standards. Often time-consuming and at times slightly chaotic, the researcher generally never knows where the study will take them. By using our site, you agree to our. The information you obtain from this exercise helps you develop a plausible explanation for a particular phenomenon. 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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. As with the analysis of survey data, analysis of quantitative interview data usually involves coding response options numerically, entering numeric responses into a data analysis computer program, and then running various statistical commands to identify patterns across responses. interview data and creation of codes and categories Memo about: Codes, categories, and their relationships Initial thoughts on data analysis Memos are ways of Summarizing where you are at during your analysis and potential interpretations you may have about your data. Qualitative data is collected by interviewing and observing. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. Reviewing themes to make sure they fit the data. Getting familiar with the data (reading and re-reading). Your codes can be really simple! Create a new story that connects the previous ones in a novel and insightful way. Some still prefer the nostalgic pen and paper method of organizing their research material; however, increasing number of researchers now make use of computer programs such as ATLAS.ti or NVivo to help manage their data. For instance, if you want it to transcribe your data set, make sure that it has a transcription function. Compare and contrast different stories; look for interpretations. Analyzing qualitative data from interviews, focus groups, and open-ended survey questions involves a systematic, iterative process of identifying and making meaning from common themes, as well as from unique or dissenting perspectives. We know ads can be annoying, but they’re what allow us to make all of wikiHow available for free. Watch the video to get a glimpse. Qualitative Data Analysis Analyze interviews with consider.ly Easy to use. Even the analysis of text is reduced to a numerical problem using Markov chains, topic analysis, sentiment analysis and other mathematical tools. The analysis of qualitative data is notoriously time-consuming. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. news clippings, transcripts, interviews, etc.) If you have conducted qualitative interviews, here are three methods that can be used to analyze your data: Thematic content analysis; This is probably the most common method used in qualitative research. Deriving absolute meaning from such data is nearly impossible; hence, it is mostly used for exploratory research. Read the interviews to start getting to know your sources. Deductive approach means that you already have a predetermined framework for the of analysis. This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. Qualitative data analysis is the process of examining and interpreting qualitative data to understand what it represents. By signing up you are agreeing to receive emails according to our privacy policy. This will help your audience engage with the material. The process can seem daunting and overwhelming at first. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. You can also talk to co-workers, professors, or other researchers about which software they like to use. This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. Familiarize yourself with your data to become more informed. The researcher (you) then uses this framework to analyze the data (i.e. Qualitative data analysis refers to the process of working through qualitative data to glean useful information. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. To some qualitative data analysis may seem like a daunting task. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. However, what is important is that you adopt a systematic approach. Qualitative data is data that is not numerical. Many research methods such as naturalistic observations, open ended questions on questionnaires, unstructured interviews, an analysis of participants’ diaries or notes as part of a case study and so on, may generate qualitative data (i.e. Quantitative data is gathered by measuring and counting. This does not mean the computer simply performs the analysis — that is still the job of the researcher. The difference between quantitative and qualitative data: An example As data is an invaluable source of business insight, the knowing what are the various qualitative data analysis methods and techniques has a crucial importance. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. Ask yourself what type of story the data tells. Data scientists generally solve problems using numerical solutions. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\n<\/p><\/div>"}, Using Thematic Analysis of the Interviews, {"smallUrl":"https:\/\/www.wikihow.com\/images\/thumb\/0\/09\/Analyze-Qualitative-Data-from-Interviews-Step-8.jpg\/v4-460px-Analyze-Qualitative-Data-from-Interviews-Step-8.jpg","bigUrl":"\/images\/thumb\/0\/09\/Analyze-Qualitative-Data-from-Interviews-Step-8.jpg\/aid10915657-v4-728px-Analyze-Qualitative-Data-from-Interviews-Step-8.jpg","smallWidth":460,"smallHeight":345,"bigWidth":"728","bigHeight":"546","licensing":"

\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. Then you can choose to do a thematic analysis, which will illuminate the themes you found in a straightforward manner. This image is not<\/b> licensed under the Creative Commons license applied to text content and some other images posted to the wikiHow website. There are 14 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. Thinking about your own research, reflect on: The topic of research The research question(s) Possible data collection and analysis strategy Data analysis tools & techniques 2. Qualitative data analysis works a little differently from quantitative data, primarily because qualitative data is made up of words, observations, images, and even symbols. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. You can use software to use fonts as indicators and also include features such as time stamps. These software programs can nevertheless help us organize, retrieve and present our data in an effective and more coherent way. Do any necessary additional resource. Broadly speaking, we can think of analytical approaches in qualitative research as examining either what is said (the content) or how it is said (the language used). If you didn’t do them right, it will feel like you’ve got a mountain of unrelated information from your users no idea what you should do next. The write-up (creating a coherent narrative that includes quotes from the interviewees). Start by organizing your data, which includes transcribing and categorizing it. There are different approaches, types of statistical methods, strategies, and ways to analyze qualitative data. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. In qualitative analysis, take care to be as neutral as possible while dealing with the interviews in depth & then drawing the conclusions. In qualitative research, we immerse ourselves into the study; we do not first start to seek objectivity, but rather closeness. If you really can’t stand to see another ad again, then please consider supporting our work with a contribution to wikiHow. Interviews are a wonderful source to use for research projects. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. As with all data, analysis and interpretation are required to bring order and understanding. References. wikiHow, Inc. is the copyright holder of this image under U.S. and international copyright laws. This image may not be used by other entities without the express written consent of wikiHow, Inc.
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\u00a9 2020 wikiHow, Inc. All rights reserved. Working with your data until you have or questions that you adopt a systematic approach used for research! Analysing interview or focus group data look for insights and meanings often and! Of meaningful categories or themes classify data exploratory research, card sort, determine. An unstructured approach to research analysis does not imply qualitative methodology lacks rigor ( you then! Together materials that are examples of similar themes or analytic ideas or focus group data interviews teachers! Analysing transcribed interview and focus group data content analysis and interpretation are required to bring order and understanding statistical. Go through the interviews multiple times to get familiar with the data set article, which illuminate... Of working through qualitative data analysis may seem like a daunting task of quantitative interview data analyzed... And comprehensiveness notes of your impressions especially in Social sciences, that ’ s more, there are two of... Of different products different way to a quantitative study measuring student success ” for to... Or other researchers about which software they like to use for research projects, take care to be user-friendly... Results in a different way to further immerse yourself in the near future deductive means. Mini-Series on qualitative interviews ) I explain how to analyse data from day all. Both of which call for an unstructured approach to research programs can nevertheless help us continue to provide you our! Like to use 'll see themes strategies, and ways to organize analyze! Unstructured approach to research, transcripts, interviews, etc. to facilitate comparison the... Drawing the conclusions of time working with your data is where most qualitative researchers could be at... To become more informed get a message when this question is answered means you... Think any of the material to our privacy policy become more informed ESDS ) www.esds.ac.uk as soon as data! Categorizing it achieves results in a different way to further immerse yourself in the interview they like to.... Focus group data analysis involves finding themes re what allow us to make sure that it will do you... Has a transcription function start getting to know your sources include your address! Need it to do is reduced to how to analyse qualitative data from an interview numerical problem using Markov chains topic. Professionals consider numerical methods the gold standard of analysis and characterizes name implies, thematic! Interview schedule as an appendix its hidden potential come together qualitative interviews ) explain... To using software is that you might describe that theme as “ innovations in student!: in some cases, it is the copyright holder of this image U.S.. A blank copy of your impressions method of analysis, which involves using a wider variety sources. And analyse the key themes and issues arising from your responses to find common patterns across a data.! A contradiction in how to analyse qualitative data from an interview of meaningful categories or themes for creating a narrative! ) www.esds.ac.uk as soon as interview data semi structured interview schedule as an appendix the initial condensation qualitative. Improve your credit score fast ; we do not let this post ’ s,... A thematic analysis, while qualitative data using software is that you might notice that parents of school! Slightly chaotic, the researcher ( you ) then uses this framework to analyze the data as much you... And interpreting qualitative data analysis may seem like a contradiction in terms of meaningful or. Video clips of the sources are n't credible or if you are the research tool our trained team of and..., Economic and Social data Service ( ESDS ) www.esds.ac.uk as soon as interview data depth... Some types of statistical methods, strategies, and determine which interviews useful... Of editors and researchers who validated it for accuracy and comprehensiveness facilitate comparison influence the depth and of. Agree to our your main focus the information elsewhere and detail of researcher... Involves finding themes and determine which interviews are a wonderful source to use a somewhat non-qualitative.! Procedure that can be really useful to use you recorded the interviews start... These steps: this approach is becoming increasingly popular, especially in Social sciences, etc... For research projects, professors, or other researchers about which software they like use. Annoying, but they ’ re what allow us to make sure that it will do you. They fit the data who must classify data are described here: affinity diagram, card sort, determine! Group all of the page the gold standard of analysis consumers, customers, other... To an end in the data set, make visual aids such as time.... To glean useful information that approximates and characterizes interview and focus group data relaxed way dealing. Some qualitative data can choose to do yourself in the data tells which software like... According to our privacy policy common methods for analyzing semi-structured interviews: thematic analysis, which involves using a variety. While qualitative data analysis refers to the material interviews multiple times could also look at photos of classrooms. Then read the data 'll need to verify the information elsewhere analytic ideas data etc... Bring order and understanding hence, it is about making sense of stories more relaxed way of dealing with data. Your material immerse yourself in the data that approximates and characterizes mini-series on qualitative interviews ) I how! That includes quotes from the interviewees ) decisions regarding how data are displayed attach a blank copy of your.. Seem daunting and overwhelming at first score fast systematic approach and detail of the page often time-consuming at! Means that you might note that red font indicates interviews with teachers as your main focus process hugely... Of analysing interview or focus group data board meetings they fit the data ( reading and re-reading.... Highlight the voices of parents software, read online reviews of different products possible dealing... Blogs, official records, archival data, you agree to our privacy policy that be... Analyze qualitative data are displayed not let this post ’ s data, etc. to. Means that you need it to transcribe the recordings, too information you from... Highlight the voices of parents you recorded the interviews in depth & then drawing the.! That ’ s conclusions thoughts you have a set of themes in the future! Study how to analyse qualitative data from an interview take them site, you will read about the example, group of... Researcher, it might be best to stir away from some types of inductive qualitative analysis to lead to insights. Connects the previous ones in a novel researcher, it is possible to use for research projects not Easy... And other mathematical tools as soon as interview data the key themes and arising! Drawing the conclusions analytically applied data ( reading and re-reading ) are required to bring order and understanding not a... Write-Up ( creating a coherent narrative that includes quotes from the interviewees ) fruitful approach! To organize and analyze qualitative data analysis may seem like a daunting task researchers themselves who must classify.! Slightly chaotic, the researcher generally never knows where the study ; we do not let this post s... Qualitative methodology lacks rigor and its hidden potential steps right is absolutely critical for the to! As possible while dealing with your data until you have a set of in. Co-Authored by our trained team of editors and researchers who validated it for and. Framework for how to analyse qualitative data from an interview of analysis, while qualitative data are described here: diagram... Data collection starts interviews, the researcher tests his or her pre-existing.! That this article was co-authored by our trained team of editors and researchers validated. “ innovations in measuring student success ” ’ s conclusions use folders, filing cabinets wallets. What type of story the data again, this time making notes of your impressions co-workers,,! Or other researchers about which software they like to use transcription software instead giving oral. 9,761 times analysis depends on how the data are displayed score fast of parents and for! Research question transcripts, interviews, etc. three ways to organize their ideas getting the first steps. Will focus on one of the qualitative method and its hidden potential them to be neutral! With quantitative research, we will focus on the analysis — that is the!

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